Translations are regarded by Muslims as new versions of the holy book, rather than as translations in the conventional sense. At the time of the revelation of the Qur'an, books were not readily available and so it was common for people to learn it by heart. Committing the Qur'an to memory acted as a great aid for its preservation and any person who is able to accomplish this is known as a hafiz.
While the Qur'an is recited aloud, Muslims should behave with reverence and refrain from speaking, eating or drinking, or making distracting noise. In addition to the Qur'an, the other sacred sources are the Sunnah , the practise and examples of the Prophet Muhammad's life, and the Hadith , reports of what the prophet Muhammad said or approved.
Both the Hadith and Sunnah must adhere to a strict chain of narration that ensures its authenticity, taking into account factors such as the character of people in the chain and continuity in narration. Reports that fail to meet such criteria will be disregarded. One famous example is that of the scholar of Hadith literature, Imam Bukhari, who travelled several hundred miles on horseback to acquire a Hadith. When he arrived, he saw the man that knew the Hadith deceiving his donkey into thinking there was grain in a sack in order to induce him to move forward.
In it is guidance sure, without doubt to those who fear Allah, who believe in the unseen, are steadfast in prayer and spend out of what we have provided for them, and who believe in the revelation sent to you, and sent before your time and in their hearts have the assurance of the hereafter. They are on true guidance from the Lord, and it is these who will prosper.
English translation: Say: "We believe in Allah, and in what has been revealed to us and what was revealed to Ibrahim , Isma'il, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes, and in the books given to Musa , Isa , and the prophets, from their Lord: We make no distinction between one and another among them, and to Allah do we bow our will in Islam. English translation: And when they listen to the revelation received by the messenger, you will see their eyes overflowing with tears, for they recognise the truth. They pray: "Our Lord!
We believe; write us down among the witnesses. English translation: It is he who created you from a single person, and made his mate of like nature, in order that he might dwell with her in love. When they are united, she bears a light burden and carries it about unnoticed. When she grows heavy, they both pray to Allah their Lord, saying: "If you give us a goodly child, we vow we shall ever be grateful.
English translation: Relate in the book the story of Mary , when she withdrew from her family to a place in the East. She placed a screen to screen herself from them; then we sent to her our angel, and he appeared before her as a man in all respects.
English translation: These are verses of the Wise Book, a guide and a mercy to the doers of good, those who establish regular prayer, and give regular charity , and have in their hearts the assurance of the hereafter. English translation: So also was Jonah among those sent by Us.
Until 'Uthman, one and only one written text existed. The various hadith that appear to command Muslims to kill apostates from Islam must, therefore, be understood in their proper political context. The appeal of fundamentalism Sean Illing I wonder if a complete diagnosis is even possible. Sean Illing How does your book split this difference? Einstein Theology God. I think the history of Islamic religion is really interesting even though I am not Muslim. When Christian fundamentalists like Pat Robertson say something that's homophobic or misogynistic, people on the left descend on them like a ton of bricks.
When he ran away like a slave from captivity to the ship fully laden, he agreed to cast lots, and he was condemned: Then the big fish did swallow him, and he had done acts worthy of blame. English translation: The revelation of this book is from Allah, exalted in power, full of knowledge, who forgives sin, accepts repentance, is strict in punishment, and has a long reach in all things. There is no God but he: to him is the final goal.
English translation: And before this, was the Book of Musa as a guide and a mercy: And this Book confirms it in the Arabic tongue; to admonish the unjust, and as glad tidings to those who do right. English translation: So establish weight with justice and fall not short in the balance. He, and others, would memorize the revealed verses and, under the guidance of Gabriel, Muhammad organized these verses into the existing surahs.
The intervention of Gabriel in ordering the various verses in Islamic history is meant to guarantee not only the sanctity of the individual verses, but the religious validity of the organization of these verses in the Qur'an. The Qur'an was an oral text throughout the lifetime of Muhammad; it was also a fluid text. The complete text resided only in the memories of Muahmmad and his followers.
As he added verses and reorganized the text, his followers would rememorize the text in the light of the additions or edits.
These days it's urgent for Christians to read and understand the Koran in order to get a better handle on a religion that is so much in the. The Quran is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah). It is widely.
This means that the Qur'an was a living text during the lifetime of Muhammad. Certain verses revealed to Muhammad were later repudiated by him as "satanic" verses revealed not by Gabriel but by Satan.
These verses were expunged from the text that so many had memorized. After the death of Muhammad, the text of the Qur'an was written down in the caliphate of Abu Bakr. Until 'Uthman, one and only one written text existed. For more than a decade after the death of Muhammad, the Qur'an remained primarily an oral text in the memories of the faithful.
Nevertheless, the military expansion of Islam led to two direct consequences concerning the integrity of the Quranic text. First, large numbers of the faithful were dying out in the various military expeditions.
Each time someone died who had the Quranic text memorized, that meant that one copy of the Qur'an disappeared forever. Second, the expansion of Islam swelled the ranks of the faithful. Many of these new converts spoke other langagues and the original Arabic of the Qur'an began to corrupt. Faced with these two threats to the integrity of the Qur'an , 'Uthman orderd a rescension of the text to be made and to serve as the definitive written version of the text. A rescension is a version of a text that is assembled from all the variant versions of that text.
In Islamic history, there is no variation between these two sources, so the Uthmanic "rescension" is largely a codifying of a single version of a text. This version, the 'Uthmanic rescension , is the version of the Qur'an that has remained, unchanged, the central holy text of Islam.
The Qur'an has one overriding theme, endlessly repeated and elaborated throughout the text: complete submission in Arabic: islam ; muslim means "one who submits" to the word and the will of God, who is one God and the only God. The God of Islam is both a stern judge and endlessly forgiving; obedience to God wipes away all transgression. This submission, however, must be fully and rationally given; faith iman is a rational consent to the truth of the word of God.
Therefore, much of the Qu'ran concerns the word of God and how it is received and believed, or not received and believed as the case may be. Download our mobile app for on-the-go access to the Jewish Virtual Library.
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